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Singular and Plural

Singular and Plural - General English Grammar



Plural forms: A form of word which refers to more than one person or thing. Eg: Cats, men

Usually nouns will change to plural forms by adding ‘s’ at the end of the singular forms.

boy – boys                      girls – girls

school – schools           van – vans

shop – shops                  film – films

paper – papers              chief – chiefs

gulf – gulfs



There are some unusual forms of plural nouns changed from singular nouns. They are given in a table.


Some noun will change to different forms

man – men

woman – women

tooth – teeth

child – children

foot – feet

ox – oxen

Some noun do not change in plural form from singular form

vacation – vacation

deer – deer

fish – fish

bison – bison

pair – pair

means – means

Singular noun ending with ‘o’ will change by adding ‘s’ (those are not frequently used )

dynamo – dynamos

piano – pianos

radio – radios

stereo – stereos

ratio – ratios

Some have two plural forms

syllabus – syllabi / syllabuses

fungus – fungi / funguses

medium – media / mediums

cactus – cacti / cactuses

curriculum – curricula / curriculums

memorandum – memoranda / memorandums

Some have no singular form







Singular noun ending with ‘y’ will change into ‘i’ along with adding ‘es’

baby – babies

family – families

copy – copies

lady – ladies

difficulty – difficulties

story – stories

Singular form ending with ‘a’ will change into ‘ae’

vertebra – vertebrae

formula – formulae

antenna – antennae

alga – algae

larva – larvae

amoeba – amoebae

Singular form ending with ‘ um’ will change into ‘ a’

medium – media

forum – fora

datum – data

bacterium – bacteria

stratum – strata

dictum – dicta

Singular noun ending with ‘x’ will change into ‘ ices’

matrix – matrices

index – indices

Singular noun ending with ‘ us’ will change into ‘ i’

radius – radii

locus – loci

bacillus – bacilli

alumnus – alumni

hippopotamus – hippopotami

focus – foci

Singular noun ending with ‘ is’ will change into ‘es’

diagnosis – diagnoses

ellipsis – ellipses

axis – axes

crisis – crises

hypothesis – hypotheses

synopsis – synopses

Singular noun ending with ‘eau’ will change into ‘s’ or ‘x’

bureau – bureaus / bureaux

plateau – plateaus / plateaux

Singular nouns ending with ‘o’, ‘s’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’ or ‘x’ will change by adding ‘’es’

box – boxes

bus – buses

class – classes

potato – potatoes

match – matches

watch – watches

Singular noun ending with ‘f’ / ‘fe’ will change into ‘v’ along with adding ‘es’

leaf – leaves

knife – knives

wife – wives

thief – thieves

shelf – shelves

loaf – loaves

Singular noun ending with ‘on’ will change into ‘a’

phenomenon – phenomena

criterion – criteria

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